Methodology, Let’s look at some common misconceptions. Methodology, The Comprehensive ICF-CS for schizophrenia consists of 97 categories covering the characteristic spectrum of problems in functioning and health that are experienced by individuals with this disorder; it also includes environmental factors. To ensure that study participants were all “informed individuals” with regard to the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia, the initial invitation letter specified that they should be “psychologists experienced in the treatment of schizophrenia”. Psychopathology More detail regarding the categories listed by the experts and the corresponding percentage analyses is provided in S1–S5 Tables. Risperidone (oral forms) for people with schizophrenia 6 October 2017 | Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. Schizophrenia has a lifetime prevalence of about 1% 4 and accounts for a huge health care burden, with annual associated costs in the United States estimated to be more than $150 billion. Most Cited Schizophrenia Research Articles. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 523 – 530. Schizophrenia can cause hallucinations, delusions, and unusual behaviors, as well as cognitive challenges, such as problems with memory, attention, and concentration. 6, No. The four journals that published the most studies of motivation in schizophrenia were Schizophrenia Research (46 published studies), Psychiatry Research (18), Schizophrenia Bulletin (12), and the Journal of Abnormal Psychology (8). The literature also supports the idea that the brain is the main altered structure in this illness and it is considered to be the basis of other dysfunctions such as neuropsychological impairment [30]. Applying the delta statistic method, a general index of .90 [95% CI: .89 - .91] was obtained, indicating that 90% of agreements were not due to chance. Treatment is directed at ameliorating acute psychosis and reducing relapses. Conceptualization, [2 *], over 60 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have subsequently examined the efficacy of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for psychosis (CBTp).These trials have typically looked at the effectiveness of CBTp in improving the core symptoms of schizophrenia … Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Participants in the third round were asked to evaluate the same list of categories again, this time taking into account the feedback they were sent concerning the responses of the panel and their own previous responses. 1. Abstract. The Delphi process is shown in Fig 2. The ICF as a whole includes more than 1400 categories and hence is not suited to application in everyday clinical practice. Most of the categories that psychologists regarded as important coincide with those identified in the validation study from the perspective of psychiatrists [14], suggesting that the proposed list of Personal factors captures the aspects that merit particular consideration in this population. Twenty-four categories that feature in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia did not achieve agreement of 75% in the present Delphi study. The purpose is to achieve consensus from a panel of individuals with knowledge of the topic of interest (hereinafter, experts). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.g003. Data Availability: The data will be held in the University of Barcelona's repository by clicking this link: http://hdl.handle.net/2445/127181. Software, Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness characterized by incoherent or illogical thoughts, bizarre behavior and speech, and delusions or hallucinations, such as hearing voices. Personal factors were defined as the particular background of an individual’s life and living situation (e.g., age) [18]. All categories reported by at least 5% of the experts were listed and presented to the panel in the second Delphi round. Yes Abstract Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder associated with impairment in functioning. Section 1: Diagnosis and Classification of Schizophrenia . As many of the categories listed in that Core Set were considered important by more than half the experts but did not reach the threshold for consensus (75% agreement), the results are discussed by considering categories that were clearly excluded (50% or less of agreement), those whose relevance appears to be ambiguous (between 50% and 75% of agreement), and those for which there was consensus (75% or more agreement). The ICF is based on a multidimensional, biopsychosocial approach (see Fig 1) and considers a patient’s functioning as a dynamic interaction between the underlying health condition and specific personal and environmental contextual factors. Writing – original draft, Affiliations Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology Volume 13 Issue 1 Article 7 2018 Dialectical Behavior Therapy as a Possible Treatment Modality for Schizophrenia Cheyenne Kemp Follow this and additional works at: https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/intuition Part of the Psychology Commons Recommended Citation The ICF-CSs for schizophrenia can be used as a standard set of ICF categories to facilitate the assessment of functioning in real-life clinical practice by using the ICF qualifiers, which are codes used to record the extent of functioning or disability in a domain or category, or the extent to which an environmental factor is a facilitator or barrier. This is consistent with the more biomedical perspective of psychiatrists. A collection of recently published articles from subdisciplines of psychology covered by more than 90 APA journals. Now available in nearly every metropolitan area in the U.S., consumer-run drop-in centers help people with serious mental illness become part of their communities again. Expert psychologists from around the world were recruited by contacting international associations of psychologists, universities with health professional training programs, and hospitals. 1906-Present. Another key strength is its multidisciplinary approach, insofar as it provides a common language that can be used by all the professionals and healthcare disciplines involved in a person’s care. The kappa coefficient for the linking process was .90 [95% CI: .88 - .92]. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia involves multiple neurochemical pathways and brain circuits. Along with medication, psychotherapy and support can help them regain their lives. Schizophrenia High Impact List of Articles PPts Journals 1154. Risperidone (oral forms) for people with schizophrenia 6 October 2017 | Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. However, it has been suggested that the effects of CBTp in areas other than psychotic symptoms are at least as important and potentially benefit from the intervention. In this article, I shall focus on psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia and explore how the corresponding data aligns with theoretical concepts developed by Lev Vygotsky and Aleksei Leontiev. From the experts’ answers in round one, a total of 7,526 concepts were extracted and linked to 412 ICF categories (219 second-level, 189 third-level, and 4 fourth-level). Journal of Psychiatry, Autism-Open Access, Hereditary Genetics: Current Research, Schizophrenia Research, JAMA Psychiatry, The Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Schizophrenia … With respect to the Activities and Participation component, all the categories that reached consensus (n = 32) form part of the ICF-CS for schizophrenia. As this category also reached consensus in the validation study from the perspective of psychiatrists it clearly reflects a problem area for these patients [28,29], and therefore its exclusion from the ICF-CS for schizophrenia should be reconsidered. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Volume 59, Issue 1. All categories of the Activities and Participation component for which consensus was reached are listed in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia. Data curation, Although this wide range of symptoms can be present in different combinations[4], patients across the schizophrenia spectrum commonly experience impairments, limitations, and restrictions in major areas of functioning (such as education, work, interpersonal relations, or self-care). The two ICF-CSs for schizophrenia are available for free download at: https://www.icf-research-branch.org/icf-core-sets-projects2/mental-health/icf-core-set-for-schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that afflicts more than 21 million people worldwide [1]. With the aim of avoiding language barriers and encouraging participation by experts from different world regions, the study was conducted in five languages (Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish). In order to facilitate comparison with previous studies that use the kappa index, we also calculated this statistic and its 95% CI [22]. Copyright: © 2019 Nuño et al. Dangerousness, unpredictability and the fear of people with schizophrenia. Writing – review & editing, Affiliations The research evidence for schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder. Four categories from the Environmental factors component of the ICF-CS for schizophrenia did not achieve consensus but were selected by more than 50% of the experts surveyed. Pettenkofer School of Public Health, Munich, Germany, Other main objectives include training in social skills and problem solving, reducing positive and negative symptoms, and modifying contextual factors to facilitate recovery [9]. Conceptualization, Funding: This work was supported by Spain’s Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness [grant PSI2015–67984-R], and by the Agency for the Management of University and Research Grants of the Government of Catalonia [grant 2017SGR1681]. Investigation, These results support the content validity of these ICF Core Sets from the perspective of psychologists. These categories covered all its chapters and focused especially on learning and applying knowledge (e.g., d160 Focusing attention), interpersonal interactions (e.g., d720 Complex interpersonal interactions), and major life areas such as education (e.g., d830 Higher education) and employment (e.g., d845 Acquiring, keeping and terminating a job). Analysis of microbiota in first episode psychosis identifies preliminary associations with … 56, No. ICF Research Branch, a cooperation partner within the WHO Collaborating Centre for the Family of International Classifications in Germany (at DIMDI), Munich, Germany, Affiliations For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Therefore, their use implies that the corresponding second-level category is applicable. Resources, Schizophrenia Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies ...JSM Schizophrenia is a scientific, peer-reviewed journal of original articles that focus on the practical and … Indeed, we sought to obtain a sample of experts that, as far as possible, reflected worldwide variety in all the variables considered (e.g., gender, age, years of experience, and region). In light of these results, it would be useful if the ICF included comprehensive specifications of ‘Personal factors’, or at least a list of such factors, so as to enable more systematic reporting of the personal factors that influence functioning and health and to further stimulate research in this important area [43]. Better and more targeted treatment of these areas would help to decrease the stigma that surrounds this illness and empower patients to improve their quality of life [5]. The relevance of this category was likewise noted in the Delphi study from the perspective of psychiatrists [14], where agreement was even higher (97%). Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. All potential participants received an invitation with basic information about the study and what would be required of them. Writing – review & editing, Affiliations Schizophrenia is currently classified as a psychotic disorder. Psychologists with experience of schizophrenia treatment were recruited for a three-round Delphi study in order to gather their views regarding the problems commonly presented by these patients. Psychological interventions also address other categories that were associated with high agreement, namely psychosocial functions (b122 Global psychosocial functions [24]), functions affected by negative symptoms (e.g., b130 Energy and drive functions and b152 Emotional functions [25,26]), and classical symptoms in schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations (e.g. Each ICF-CS comprises a selection of ICF categories that are considered essential for describing the functioning of a person living with the corresponding health condition. Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscape's Schizophrenia Journal Articles. MENU (Illustration: iStock) Home > Tell Me All I Need to Know About Schizophrenia. The journal publishes novel papers that really contribute to understanding the biology and treatment of schizophrenic disorders; Schizophrenia Research brings together biological, clinical and psychological … However, as they are relevant to assessment and intervention planning, concepts related to Personal factors were summarized and considered in rounds two and three of the Delphi study. There is reliable evidence for schizophrenia being a progressive disease with emergent treatment resistance in most cases, that relapse contributes to this treatment resistance, that … Software, It was made clear that they should base their answers on their clinical experience. This provides further evidence of the suitability of the ICF framework for describing functioning and disability in persons with schizophrenia. We evaluated 74 stable outpatients with schizophrenia receiving community care. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to help individuals with this health condition, and psychological interventions are considered a priority. Its lifetime prevalence is estimated at between 0.3% and 0.7%. Four of the 17 categories that are included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia (b330 Fluency and rhythm of speech functions, b530 Weight maintenance functions, b640 Sexual functions, and b765 Involuntary movement functions) did not achieve consensus in the Delphi study (see S1 Table for more details). Keep on Citing! We calculated descriptive statistics for the sociodemographic characteristics of participants and the frequencies of ICF categories. Related Journals of Schizophrenia. I have shared the major conclusions in my journal with the following first-person account of the psychological causes of my schizophrenia… Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness where contact with reality and insight are impaired, an example of psychosis. Impact Factor. Paranoid schizophrenia journal articles pdf is a mental illness that involves false beliefs of being persecuted or plotted aga... Schizophrenia Bulletin | Oxford Academic - Oxford Journals. Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry and Epidemiology–IBE, Research Unit for Biopsychosocial Health, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU), Munich, Germany, Of the 1,555 health professionals who agreed to take part and who provided demographic and professional data, 223 were psychologists who met the eligibility criteria and who were therefore invited to begin round one of this study. Specifically, 52% of invited experts who did not respond had less than five years’ experience in the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia, while this was the case for only 20% of the experts who did take part in the first round. I. There is also evidence that psychological interventions produce changes in brain structure and its functioning [31], with this being the goal of interventions such as cognitive remediation. Latest articles in this journal Supplemental Material for Disentangling Temporal Dynamics in Attention Bias From Measurement Error: A State-Space … The fact that there are also some differences in emphasis between psychologists and psychiatrists highlights the importance of considering different professional points of view in order to achieve a fuller picture of how functioning is affected in this population. Although a significant minority of the general public also believed them to be liable to commit violent and sexual offences against the person, on average they were not rated as dangerous. Pages 845-857. Change style powered by CSL. This article posits that this emphasis on psychosis is a conceptual fallacy that has greatly contributed to the lack of progress in our … (2018) [14]. Introduction. It is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal … No, Is the Subject Area "Psychological and psychosocial issues" applicable to this article? Of these, the ambiguous categories (i.e., those selected by more than 50% but less than 75% of the expert panel) mainly belong to chapter d6 Domestic life (e.g., d640 Doing housework) or are related to employment (e.g., d855 Non-remunerative employment). Volume 77, Issue 1. Schizophrenia is a mental health condition that usually appears in late adolescence or early adulthood. The expected completion time for each survey round was about 15 minutes. The authors would like to thank all the participating experts for their commitment and the time spent, without which the study would not have been possible. They primarily worked in clinical practice (mean 46.3% of their time), followed by research (28.1%), teaching and training (16.9%), management (7.8%), and other tasks (0.9%). Journal of Clinical Psychology. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a range of four years (e.g. At the 54th World Health Assembly on 22 May 2001 the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was officially endorsed (resolution WHA 54.21) by all 191 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) as the international standard to describe and measure health and disability [11]. Clinical treatment of schizophrenia. Participants were provide with a written consent form. To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under … The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry: Vol. These results offer a more positive view of the abilities of people with schizophrenia, since it suggests that their difficulties mainly depend on the complexity of the task. Resources, Such a large sample is not common in this kind of study [44,45]. This is a multistage process in which each stage or round builds on the results of the previous one in order to gather and provide information about a particular subject [15]. Investigation, They were reminded that the aim was to obtain a final list that was both short enough to be applicable in clinical practice and sufficiently comprehensive to cover the most important needs of people with schizophrenia. No, PLOS is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) corporation, #C2354500, based in San Francisco, California, US, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936, https://www.icf-research-branch.org/icf-core-sets-projects2/mental-health/icf-core-set-for-schizophrenia. All categories included in the Brief ICF-CS for schizophrenia were selected by 75% or more of participating experts, thus supporting the relevance of the categories that form this ICF-CS. Taken together, these results suggest that the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia provide a clinically relevant framework for organizing information about this health condition. Agreement of 75% or higher was reached for 75.3% of the categories included in the Comprehensive ICF-CS for schizophrenia and for all the categories in the Brief version. The specific symptoms that have been felt to characterize schizophrenia have varied widely over time and across cultures, as has the diagnostic and prognostic importance placed on these symptoms. Two health professionals with experience of treating persons with schizophrenia and trained in the use of the ICF independently linked all responses from the first Delphi round to the corresponding ICF categories. Yes Visualization, Its worldwide acceptance and applicability to all health conditions is one of its main contributions in comparison with other evaluation systems. They were also asked to provide demographic and professional data. The ICF Core Sets for schizophrenia are a list of ICF categories describing the most common problems in functioning of persons affected by this health condition. There was a plan, a structure, and a method to my search. Four categories from this component that do feature in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia did not reach consensus in the Delphi study (see S4 Table). BMC Health Services ... Keith Fear, Chris Hynes, Joanne Sullivan, Gary Moore, Bruce and Burns, Tom 2010. (1995). These results are in line with those obtained in the validation study from the perspective of psychiatrists, where all the categories of the Brief ICF-CS and 90% of those in the Comprehensive version yielded consensus. Consensus was achieved for 75.3% of the ICF categories included in the Comprehensive ICF-CS, and 100% of those in the Brief ICF-CS. Seventy-three of the 97 ICF categories that form the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for schizophrenia achieved consensus, and only three categories that yielded consensus do not feature in this Core Set. The goals of these interventions are manifold, with key targets being to improve psychological wellbeing and quality of life, neurocognition, and family communication. Those ICF categories and Personal factors that were reported by less than 5% of the experts (98 ICF categories and 20 personal factors) were excluded from the second round; ICF categories coded as ‘other specified’ or ‘unspecified’ at the second-level (n = 11 ICF categories) were also excluded. 46 countries covering all six WHO regions that No competing interests: the data will held. In any earlier stage of developing the ICF-CS for schizophrenia includes just 25 of these Core... Burns, Tom 2010 Journal … Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a Journal! 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