And stainless steel is about 4% lower. Material Properties of S355 Steel - An Overview S355 is a non-alloy European standard (EN 10025-2) structural steel, most commonly used after S235 where more strength is needed. The test-piece has an initial width of 10 mm, thickness of 1.4 mm and gauge length of 50 mm. - Above 480 °C (900 °F), the value of the modulus of elasticity decreases rapidly. It really does not care what caused the difference. Of the similar books on the market today, none explain in detail why one steel is comparable to another. A higher ratio means more stretchability. The limiting value is dependent on material, but is generally between 5 and 6. In cold-formed steel construction, the use of a range of thin, high strength steels (0.35 mm thickness and 550 MPa yield stress) has increased significantly in recent times. A reduction in impurities such as C and N and addition of stabi- ... n-value 0.19 0.18 0.46 Table 3 r-value and forming properties NSSC 180 SUS304 r-value average 1.4 1.0 L.D.R. Steel Hardness Conversion Table. The n-value is the one property of sheetmetal that helps the most in evaluating its relative stretchability. measurement of a material's capacity to resist heat flow from one side In essence, steel is composed of iron and carbon, although it is the amount of carbon, as well as the level of impurities and additional alloying elements that determine the properties of each steel grade. The N value (standard Penetration test) value is widely used in Geotechnical Engineering designs especially in India and nearby countries. Concrete: It should be noted that in European design standards, the section factor is presented as A/V which has the same numerical value … Study it. and Larger Easily access valuable industry resources now with full access to the digital edition of The Fabricator en Español. A steel mill or service center sometimes will correct poor shape with an extra heavy temper pass. Haihong International Trade (HK) CO., Limited. 10 in. Structural steel is a standard construction material made from specific grades of steel and formed in a range of industry-standard cross-sectional shapes (or ‘Sections’). 2. • Some higher strength steel specifications require a spread of 10,000 or 20,000 PSI between the yield strength and tensile strength. Wrought Iron: Black : 0.012: 0.014: 0.015: Galvanized: 0.013: 0.016: 0.017: 5. Location B indicates the maximum, n-value expected when the minimum yield strength is specified. We have to convert it into dyne/cm². Point A shows a steel sample with an n-value below the expected value. SAE 4140 (AISI 4140 steel) is a Cr-Mo series (Chrome molybdenum series) low alloy steel, this material has high strength and hardenability, good toughness, small deformation during quenching, high creep strength and long-lasting strength at high temperature. EU Quota Tracking EU Quota Tracking. n-value, also known as the strain hardening exponent, is the measure of a metal’s response to cold working. | Independence | Ohio 44131-2500
For years the n-values were only good to two decimal places. ; Creep. 36 in. They simply appear together in a list of steels. Last month this column emphasized that our traditional steels have work-hardening exponents (n-values) that remain constant during deformation. Fortunately, the n-value is not that complicated, but is a primary metal property measured directly during a tensile test. Internal … Steel (USA) Price Outlook Prices for hot-rolled coil U.S. steel continued to soar in recent weeks, hitting a one-year high, amid strong manufacturing activity data in China and the U.S in October. "exact" uses full enumeration of all sample splits with resulting standardized Steel statistics to obtain the exact \(P\)-value. The time dependent deformation due to heavy load over time is known as creep.. The processes used to strengthen the metal also reduce the n-value. Source: Admet Inc. Ductility is defined as the ability of a material to deform plastically before fracturing. Compared to the current share price of AU$14.9, the company appears around fair value at the time of writing. The graph shows why this relationship happens. FINISHLINE All-In-One Deburring & Finishing Solution. Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, Intl. A value of 0 means that a material is a perfectly plastic solid, while a value of 1 represents a 100% elastic solid. Is this related to the n-value? At Value Steel & Pipe we’re all about offering high-quality product to our customers at some of the industry’s most competitive prices.We specialize in sourcing and selling excess stock materials such as Mild Steel Plate, H.S.S. Often the n-value is ignored because it seems too complex. The N value (standard Penetration test) value is widely used in Geotechnical Engineering designs especially in India and nearby countries. Specimens are obtained from the strip or sheet at set angles with respect to the lamination direction which affects the r-value. If the steel is C15, with the material at 900°C 144 MPa, while at 1200°C 65 MPa. Pipe-arches approx-imately have the same roughness characteristics as their equivalent round pipes. • Our tensile test machine does not compute the n-value. Highest price of steel per pound in all of Florida. For structural design it is standard practice to consider the unit weight of structural steel equal to γ = 78.5 kN/m 3 and the density of structural steel approximately ρ = 7850 kg/m 3. 6363 Oak Tree Blvd. 2-2/3” x 1/2” Annular 8 in. They are worth about 10 to 13 cents each in circulated condition, and as much as 50 cents or more if uncirculated.. Steel Pipe, Ungalvanized: 0.015 — Cast Iron Pipe: 0.015 — Clay Sewer Pipe: 0.013 — Polymer Concrete Grated Line Drain: 0.011: 0.010 – 0.013: Notes: (1) Tabulated n-values apply to circular pipes flowing full except for the grated line drain. Tests show somewhat higher n values for this metal and type of construction than for riveted construction. Enjoy full access to the digital edition of The Additive Report to learn how to use additive manufacturing technology to increase operational efficiency and improve the bottom line. LOW CARBON STEELS 28 Get your online quote today! S355 J2+N Steel Plate Grade Specification : Material: Material En-10025-2 Steel Plate , S355 J2+N Steel Plate Standard: EN 10025-2:2004 Item: Offshore & Structural Steel Plate Width: 1000mm-4500mm Thickness: 5mm-150mm Length: 3000mm-18000mm Surface treatment: Bare, galvanized coated or as customer's requirements. See Note 5. The n-value is determined by tensile stress and strain values; while for the r-value calculation the specimen section measurement is also required. Easily access valuable industry resources now with full access to the digital edition of The WELDER. Absolutely.
Modulus of Elasticity for Metals. They provide a quick checklist to those very familiar with the n-value, and an introduction for those less active in the field. TEL:+86-816-3646575 FAX: +86-816-3639422 mighthaveverydifferentvalues.Nevertheless,intheabsenceof the stress-strain data for thematerial itself, the assumption, that the data derived from the testsof theshort columns may logically For the last decade, a large number of steel producers have improved their process control procedures so the n-value throughout most of the coil varies in the third decimal place. Excessive stretching leads to local necking and tearing of the stamping. Call now! The test-piece has an initial width of 10 mm, thickness of 1.4 mm and gauge length of 50 mm. It got great weldability and machinability, let us see more mechanical details of this steel. (2) For lined corrugated metal pipe, a composite roughness coefficient may be computed using the procedures outlined in the HDS No. The steel has a 6-inch pitch and a 2-inch rise; aluminum has a 9-inch pitch and a 2.5-inch rise. Steel Trade Graphs Steel Trade Graphs. Most metals have a n value between 0.10 and 0.50. However, a fourth or fifth decimal place n-values are … Is there some other of estimating n-value? It depends according to the deformation grade applied. In the final step we divide the equity value by the number of shares outstanding. 12:00 AM . The sheet thickness is retained as specimen thickness, while the parallel length is obtained by milling or punching operations. 0 0. A good knowledge of the basic mechanical properties of these steels is needed for a satisfactory use of them. If the property data are acquired automatically during a tensile test and processed by computer software, most of the new property calculation codes automatically compute n-value. These conversion charts are provided for guidance only as each scales uses different methods of measuring hardness. roughness than for annually corrugated steel pipe. It will become your most powerful trouble-shooter for sheetmetal stretch failures. The unit weight of structural steel is specified in the design standard EN 1991-1-1 Table A.4 between 77.0 kN/m 3 and 78.5 kN/m 3. The work-hardening exponent of sheet steel which indicates how much the material strengthens when the material is deformed. Events Events Events . Design values of structural steel material properties Nominal values of structural steel yield strength and ultimate strength For structural design according to Eurocode 3 (EN1993-1-1), the nominal values of the yield strength f y and the ultimate strength f u for structural steel are obtained as a simplification from EN1993-1-1 Table 3.1 , which is reproduced above in tabular format. The die reacts to the properties of the incoming blank. φ in terms of 'N' or Dr φ= 20N +15o r φ=28o +15D Point resistance from SPT 4 N D 0.4 N L qp (tsf) = ≤ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ N = avg value for 10D above and 4D below pile tip 10D 4D Q 1For a given initial φ unit point resistance for bored piles =1/3 to 1/2 of driven piles, and bulbous piles driven with great impact Is there a of obtaining the n-value from only that single piece of data? • We run n-value tests on some of our blanks, but the results are different from those provided by our steel supplier. References Cast irom, ASTM A48, structural steel fro bridges and structures, ASTM A7. ... S355J2+N/M is the direct EN equivalent of ASTM A572 GR 50. SAE AISI 4140 Alloy Steel. Strength  Yield strengtYield strength is the most common property that the designer will need as it is the basis used for most of the rules given in design codes.In European Standards for structural carbon steels (including weathering steel), the primary designation relates to the yield strength, e.g. DENSITY OF STEEL. According to the World Steel Association, there are over 3,500 different grades of steel, encompassing unique physical, chemical, and environmental properties. The following table lists the buy price (what you can expect to pay to a dealer to purchase the coin) and sell value (what you can expect a dealer to pay you if you sell the coin). Easily access valuable industry resources now with full access to the digital edition of The Tube & Pipe Journal. 48 in. • The n-values for a coil of steel often are given to three decimal places. Corrugated Metal: Subdrain: 0.017: 0.019: 0.021: Stormdrain: 0.021: 0.024: 0.030: 6. The value of the strain hardening exponent lies between 0 and 1. The following table lists the buy price (what you can expect to pay to a dealer to purchase the coin) and sell value (what you can expect a dealer to pay you if you sell the coin). While the yield strength may increase slightly, a major reduction in the n-value will take place. Why is there a difference? If you have any comments or questions about the glossary, please contact Dan Davis, editor-in-chief of The FABRICATOR. 18 in. σ = F / A (2) where. Oil Retreats on Signs of OPEC+ Discord Ahead of Key Meeting. 12/1/2020 11:23:56 PM18.104.22.168. Could the 2020s turn out like the 2010s for metal fabricators? n-Value The strain hardening exponent n is a measure of the response of metallic materials after cold working. Stress is force per unit area and can be expressed as. The total value, or equity value, is then the sum of the present value of the future cash flows, which in this case is AU$7.2b. Likewise, the TS/YS ratio will increase with the increased spread. Events Events Our major market-leading conferences and events offer optimum networking opportunities to all participants while adding great value to their business. but low carbon steel varies a range of 20.59*104 Mpa and pre hardened steels 19.14*104 Mpa Definitions. • How much additional tensile testing is required to obtain the n-value? A value of 0 means that a … Corrugated Steel Pipe—Manning's "n" Value 60 in. An example might be: I have never heard this type of question asked before last month. Young's modulus of carbon steels (mild, medium and high), alloy steels, stainless steels and tool steels are given in the following table in GPA and ksi. A typical value of the modulus of elasticity: - at 200 °C (400 °F) is about 193 GPa (28 × 10 6 psi); - at 360 °C (680 °F), 179 GPa (26 × 10 6 psi); - at 445 °C (830 °F), 165 GPa (24 × 10 6 psi); - and at 490 °C (910 °F), 152 GPa (22 × 10 6 psi). ε = dL / L (1) where. AHSS are complex, sophisticated materials, with carefully selected chemical compositions and multiphase microstructures resulting from precisely controlled heating and cooling processes. Conversions MF, © Copyright 2020 - PMA Services, Inc.
Is the third decimal place accurate? The n-value is the amount of strengthening for each increment of straining. However, a fourth or fifth decimal place n-values are sometimes published. The mechanical properties of the coil ends may be different because they undergo different processing conditions compared to locations interior to the coil. Steel has little or no resistance to heat transfer. N umerous research programmes show that some types of fully stressed steel sections can achieve a 30 minute fire resistance without ... factor is presented as A/V which has the same numerical value as Hp/A. Is the third decimal place accurate? 24 in. The Young's modulus of the steel is 19 × 10¹⁰ N/m². The arrow B represents the minimum specified yield strength. Comparing steel standards is not an exact science, so the biggest challenge of preparing such a book was deciding on the "rules of comparison." S355JR can be supplied as steel plate/ sheet, round steel bar, steel tube/pipe, steel stripe, steel billet, steel ingot, steel wire rods. The upper curve is the maximum expected n-value as a function of yield strength. The Lankford coefficient (also called Lankford value, R-value, or plastic strain ratio) is a measure of the plastic anisotropy of a rolled sheet metal.This scalar quantity is used extensively as an indicator of the formability of recrystallized low-carbon steel sheets. The n-value will print with the rest of the data if the n-value switch is turned on. AHSS are complex, sophisticated materials, with carefully selected chemical compositions and multiphase microstructures resulting from precisely controlled heating and cooling processes. Delta r (∆ r) is called the “planar anisotropy parameter” in the formula: ∆ r = (r 0 + r 90 - 2r 45)/2. Value of a 1943 Steel Penny . Mexico Metalforming Technology Conference. Checking the n-value of the problem coil would be a good first step. 12 in. This usually indicates that the computer has been allowed to calculate a large number of decimal places that are not meaningful nor scientifically accurate. S355 steel is a structural steel with a specified minimum yield strength of 355 N/mm². The n-value is measured over a strain range from 10 to 20 percent, 7 to 15 percent or 10 percent to UTS. Your test locations most likely are from blanks within the coil. Study it. 1.3 Forming Properties of Steel 9 1.3.1 Stretchability Index: n-values 11 1.3.2 Drawability index: r-values 14 1.4 Ultrasonic Measurements of r-values: Ultra-Form 19 1.4.1 Review 19 1.4.2 Ultra-Form's Description 22 1.4.3 Other Recent Advances 24 1.5 The Present Research 24 CHAPTER 2. A typical S-N curve corresponding to this type of material is shown Curve A in Figure 1. 36 in. Steel prices saw some correction in the last week of November following a massive rally that pushed prices to an eleven-month high of 4,125 Yuan/MT as construction activity in China is expected to slow when the weather turns colder. Strain is the "deformation of a solid due to stress" - change in dimension divided by the original value of the dimension - and can be expressed as. Your steel supplier must run its tests from the coil ends. This exposure to n-value generates a variety of questions about its importance, measurement, source, application and other sometimes fine details. Use it. 12 in. When metal alloys are cold worked, their yield strength increases. Steel: Lockbar and welded: 0.010: 0.012: 0.014: Riveted and spiral: 0.013: 0.016: 0.017: 3. Often the n-value is ignored because it seems too complex. 11/27/2020 . The value of the strain hardening exponent lies between 0 and 1. Other possibilities include a different chemistry, different processing, or even shipment of the wrong coil. The work-hardening exponent of sheet steel which indicates how much the material strengthens when the material is deformed. Hope this helps. It is likely to gradually replace the use of Hp/A. The density of steel is in the range of 7.75 and 8.05 g/cm 3 (7750 and 8050 kg/m 3 or 0.280 and 0.291 lb/in 3).The theoretical density of mild steel (low-carbon steel) is about 7.87 g/cm 3 (0.284 lb/in 3).. Density of carbon steels, alloy steels, tool steels and stainless steels are shown below in g/cm 3, kg/m 3 and lb/in 3. Reply. Structural rivet steel , ASTM A141; high-strength structural rivet steel, ASTM A195 . N/mm2 is not SI. Average n values range from 0.035 (steel) or 0.036 (aluminum) for 5-foot-diameter pipes to 0.033 for pipes of 18 feet or greater diameter. © 2020 FMA Communications, Inc. All rights reserved. After metals have reached their elastic limit and plastically deform they experience strain hardening, which can increase the strength within the final products application. The n-value is determined by tensile stress and strain values; while for the r-value calculation the specimen section measurement is also required. Pipe-arches approx-imately have the same roughness characteristics as their equivalent round pipes. Metric is Pascals, N/m^2. Accoding to The ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals 2005 Chapter 39 Table 3. If the exact value of n is not needed, two or more material samples can be compared using just the TS/YS ratio if none of the samples have any yield point elongation (YPE). Anisotropy is, more importantly, also caused by preferred crystallographic orientation or “texture” in the steel. "simulated" uses Nsim simulated standardized Steel statistics based on random splits of the pooled samples into samples of sizes \(n_1, \ldots, n_k\), to estimate the \(P\)-value. We know that the relationship between dyne and Newton is, 1 Newton = 10⁵ dyne. Corrugated Steel Pipe—Manning's "n" Value 60 in. Usually none. Pipe, Angles, Expanded Metal, Flat bars, Rounds,Channels and Rebar products. The n-value decreases with increasing yield strength. This problem is highlighted as point A in the graph. 2) Medium Tensile Steel Bars designated as Fe- 540-w-ht or Grade 75 . and Larger n-value noun. Long-term readers of The Science of Forming column and attendees at PMA metalforming seminars are acutely aware of the emphasis given to the workhardening of metals and the workhardening exponent or n-value. And also 1 m² = 10⁴ cm². Inflation Fear and Green Hope Drive Investors Into Copper. Enjoy full access to the digital edition of STAMPING Journal, which serves the metal stamping market with the latest technology advancements, best practices, and industry news. For this reason, some of the new advanced higher strength steels have complex microstructures that allow higher n-values for the same strength. A more truthful reason is a lack of understanding. ε = strain (m/m, in/in) dL = elongation or compression (offset) of object (m, in) L = length of object (m, in) Stress - σ. Yield Strength, Tensile Strength and Ductility Values for Steels at Room Temperature: Material: Yield Strength: Tensile Strength % Elong. The higher the n-value, the steeper the stress-strain curve in the uniform elongation region of the tensile test. N/A: 11/27/2020: an hour ago . steel (or more) that may stand alone in the structure or that is one of many pieces in an assembly or shipping piece. Gage marks spaced at 2 inches are applied with a punch. All steels have same modulus.. 200 to 210 GPa, or (in your units) those numbers times 1000. • Sometimes a coil is received that fails in a severe stretch area, while other coils form successfully. characteristic of steel and titanium in benign environmental conditions. 1 MPa = 10 6 Pa = 1 N/mm 2 = 145.0 psi (lbf/in 2); Fatigue limit, endurance limit, and fatigue strength are used to describe the amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure. • Can you explain why specifying the minimum yield strength of higher strength steels limits the maximum n-value? For years the n-values were only good to two decimal places. A more truthful reason is a lack of understanding. as the young’s modulus or elastic modulus of steel varies by the alloying additions in the steel. TEHRAN, Nov. 29 (MNA) – The export value of steel products of the country exceeded $1.5 billion in the first seven months of the current Iranian calendar year (from March 21 to Oct. 22). To obtain a higher n value, one would have to reduce the yield strength below the specification. This function uses pairwise Wilcoxon tests, comparing a common control sample with each of several treatment samples, in a multiple comparison fashion. 18 in. Get to know the n-value. 48 in. 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Supply Condition : As Rolled, Normalized Rolling, Furnace Normalizing, … 2.25 2.05 Er value 9.6 Would this be a low n-value problem? It should be noted that, for submerged sands, the SPT-N value needs to be reduced (N red) using the following relationship for SPT-N values exceeding 15. TENSILE - YIELD STRENGTH OF STEEL CHART. of the steel exposed to the fire and the mass of the steel section. • Is n-value a super-property that combines different material properties to assess formability? 1) Mild Steel Bars: Mild steel bars can be supplied in two grades . • The n-values for a coil of steel often are given to three decimal places. Standard ASTM E8 Tensile Specimen. Specimens are obtained from the strip or sheet at set angles with respect to the lamination direction which affects the r-value. At ambient temperature between (160 to 200) MPa. a)Mild steel bars grade-I designated as Fe 410-S or Grade 60 b) Mild steel bars grade-II designated as Fe-410-o or Grade 40 . Determine the K and n values. Various strengthening mechanisms are employed to achieve a range of strength, ductility, toughness, and fatigue properties. 10 in. It will become your most powerful trouble-shooter for sheetmetal stretch failures. A/V measures the rate of temperature increase of a steel cross section by the ratio of the heated surface area to the volume. Stainless Steel, Special Steel, Compressor Blading, Turbine Blading, Superalloy Supplier. Perhaps the person was familiar with equations such as that used to calculate carbon equivalent (CE) used to predict the relative difficulty of welding. Use it. Value of a 1943 Steel Penny . For low-carbon steels that have a single microstructure of ferrite, a historical data band can be constructed (See graph). 4140 Steel Uses. 2-2/3” x 1/2” Annular 8 in. Tensile / yield strengths and ductilities for some of the plain carbon and low alloy steels are given in the following mechanical properties of steel chart. natural channels with stones and weeds: 0.035. very poor natural channels They are worth about 10 to 13 cents each in circulated condition, and as much as 50 cents or more if uncirculated.. Steel traded at USD 711 per metric ton on 6 November, which was up 12.7% from the same day in the prior month. The higher the Hp/A, the faster the steel section heats up and so the greater the thickness of fire protection material required. There is a complex equation based on the tensile strength/yield strength ratio. N = 0.5(N 1 + N 2) Where N 1 is the smallest SPT-N values over the two effective diameters below the toe level N 2 is the average SPT-N value over 10 effective diameters below the pile toe. Cold working is the plastic deformation of metal below its recrystallization temperature and this is used in many manufacturing processes, such as wire drawing, forging and rolling. The n-Value, i.e. The greater the spread between the yield and tensile strengths, the steeper will be the stress-strain curve and the higher the n-value. Steel's Multiple Comparison Wilcoxon Tests. P: 216-901-8800 | F: 216-901-9669
Steel - Coal-tar enamel: 0.010: Steel - smooth: 0.012: Steel - New unlined: 0.011: Steel - Riveted: 0.019: Vitrified clay sewer pipe: 0.013 - 0.015: Wood - planed: 0.012: Wood - unplaned: 0.013: Wood stave pipe, small diameter: 0.011 - 0.012: Wood stave pipe, large diameter: 0.012 - 0.013 Physical Requirement: Cast Iron: Coated : 0.010: 0.013: 0.014: Uncoated: 0.011: 0.014: 0.016: 4. Recycle steel today! Various strengthening mechanisms are employed to achieve a range of strength, ductility, toughness, and fatigue properties. This table shows approximate hardness of steel using Brinell, Rockwell B and C and Vickers scales. Cement: Neat Surface: 0.010: 0.011: 0.013: Mortar: 0.011: 0.013: 0.015: 7. electroslag, forged ring/ block,etc. steel, which has higher ductility and is capable of being formed into a wide variety of shapes. Using the r-values in the three directions, two other important parameters are calculated. The intersection is the maximum n-value. Title: Microsoft Word - IB 4001 Mannings n Value Research.doc Author: SCMcKeen Created Date: 12/28/2005 3:43:44 PM Structural steel is a standard construction material made from specific grades of steel and formed in a range of industry-standard cross-sectional shapes (or ‘Sections’). roughness than for annually corrugated steel pipe. Young's modulus of steel at room temperature is typically between 190 GPa (27500 ksi) and 215 GPa (31200 ksi). This shows the steel with the 20,000 PSI spread will have more stretchability than the steel with only a 10,000 PSI spread. Easily access valuable industry resources now with full access to the digital edition of The FABRICATOR. C. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON AND STAINLESS STEEL 360 Table C.1: Nominal values of yield strength f y and ultimate tensile strength f u for hot rolled structural steel Standard and steel grade Nominal thickness of the element t [mm] t 40mm 40mm < t 80mm f y [N/mm 2] f u [N/mm ] f y [N/mm 2] f u [N/mm 2] EN 10025-2 S235 235 360 215 360 S275 275 430 255 410 15 in. Structural steel grades are designed with specific chemical compositions and mechanical properties formulated for particular applications. It is the ratio of the stress and the strain of a material. The U value of Steel is 26.2 or an R value of .0382. a - Minimum specified value of the American Society of Testing Materials. Detailer – a person or entity that is charged with the production of the advanced bill of materials, final bill of materials, and the production of all shop drawings necessary to purchase, fabricate and erect structural steel. strain hardening exponent, has been shown to correlate with stretch forming behavior, while the r m is a measure of deep-drawing capability. Guaranteed. 24 in. 15 in. A number of these issues are reviewed this month. PRESS HARDENABLE STEELS (PHS) Press Hardenable Steel (PHS), commonly referred to as Mn22B5 or 15B22, is available as Cold Rolled full hard or annealed and tempered. Modulus of Elasticity Young's Modulus Strength for Metals - Iron and Steel Many translated example sentences containing "value of steel" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. I think N/mm^2 is then MPa since (10^–3)^2, inverted is 10^6. For the last decade, a large number of steel producers have improved their process control procedures so the n-value throughout most of the coil varies in the third decimal place. Determine the K and n values. Get to know the n-value. N