The Assyrian king Shamashi Adad I (1813-1791 BCE) drove the Amorites out and secured the borders of Assyria, claiming Ashur as the capital of his kingdom. A Semitic Akkadian kingdom, extant as a nation state from the mid–23rd century BC to 608 BC centred on the Upper Tigris river, in northern Mesopotamia (present day northern Iraq), that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. A number of scholars also place Zariqum, a contemporary of Amar-Sin (2046–2038 BC) of Ur as an Assyrian ruler, though he does not appear on the Assyrian king list, but is claimed by Amar-Sin to be the 'governor' of Assur. Veenhof, Ankara Kultepe Tabletleri V, Turk Tarih Kurumu, 2010, Military history of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Medo-Babylonian conquest of the Assyrian Empire, modern discovery of Babylonia and Assyria, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, "National and Ethnic Identity in the Neo-Assyrian Empire and Assyrian Identity in Post-Empire Times", "Prehistory and Protohistory of the Arabian Peninsula: Bahrain", "The Invention of Cuneiform: Writing in Sumer", "Area Handbook for the Persian Gulf States",, "Compositional and Editorial Processes of Annalistic and Summary Texts of Tiglath-pileser I", "Homosexuality in the Ancient Near East, beyond Egypt by Bruce Gerig in the Ancient Near East, beyond Egypt", The Old Testament Attitude to Homosexuality, "The Philistines and Other "Sea Peoples" in Text and Archaeology". We offer a 4-year plan to studying world history. Assyria in Bible History. The Assyrian Empire started off as a major regional power in Mesopotamia in the second millennium B.C.E., but later grew in size and stature in the first millennium B.C.E. It is from this period that the later Syria vs Assyria naming controversy arises, the Seleucids applied the name 'Syria' which is a 9th-century BC Indo-Anatolian derivation of 'Assyria' (see Etymology of Syria) not only to Assyria itself, but also to the Levantine lands to the west (historically known as Aram and Eber Nari), which had been part of the Assyrian empire but, the north east corner aside, never a part of Assyria proper. The Assyrians were a Semitic people who originally spoke and wrote Akkadian before the easier to use Aramaic language became more popular. [207] Donabeg and Mako deplore and argue against this judgment and that of other academics and attribute its prevalence in part to political considerations. The Assyrians developed early methods of imperial rule that would become a practice in later empires and, according to many historians, was the first true empire in history. [29] Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere around the turn of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate),[30] but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD. After seven or eight centuries and various vicissitudes, these people became Christians" (, "Syria is not but a contraction of Assyria or Assyrian; this according to the Greek pronunciation. Ultimately, Assyria conquered Babylonia, Chaldea, Elam, Media, Persia, Urartu (Armenia), Phoenicia, Aramea/Syria, Phrygia, the Neo-Hittite States, the Hurrian lands, Arabia, Gutium, Israel, Judah, Samarra, Moab, Edom, Corduene, Cilicia, Mannea, and Cyprus, and defeated and/or exacted tribute from Scythia, Cimmeria, Lydia, Nubia, Ethiopia and others. The latter was further divided in the 20th century, with a split between the Assyrian Church of the East and the Ancient Church of the East over reforms by Shimun XXI Eshai in the 1960s. Their primary religion is now Syriac Christianity, which is directly connected to the disciple Peter. Dorian Greeks usurped the earlier Mycenaean Greeks in western Asia Minor, and the Sea Peoples ravaged the Eastern Mediterranean. It's not certain if these laws were seriously enforced, but they appear to be a backlash against some older documents that granted things like equal compensation to both partners in divorce. The city was located on the eastern side of the Fertile Crescent about 55 miles south of modern Baghdad. He campaigned widely in Anatolia, where he subjugated numerous peoples, and ventured as far as the Mediterranean Sea. Ashur-bel-kala (1073–1056 BC) kept the vast empire together, campaigning successfully against Urartu and Phrygia to the north and the Arameans to the west. A series of short reigning kings followed, these being Ashur-nadin-apli (1207–1204 BC), Ashur-nirari III (1203–1198 BC), Enlil-kudurri-usur (1197–1193 BC) and Ninurta-apal-Ekur (1192–1190 BC), and there were no significant expansions of the empire during their short tenures, and Babylonia seems to have freed itself from the Assyrian yoke for a time. These and the excellent cut seals show that Assyrian art was beginning to surpass that of Babylon. E. Bilgic and S Bayram, Ankara Kultepe Tabletleri II, Turk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi, 1995. The defeated Aramaeans were executed or deported to regions within the heartland of Assyria. In 2014, ISIL attacked Assyrian towns and villages in the Assyrian homelands of northern Iraq and north east Syria, and Assyrians forced from their homes in cities such as Mosul had their houses and possessions stolen, both by ISIL and also by their own former Arab Muslim neighbours. Any case that cannot be resolved in his presence shall be reserved to the tribunal of Christ [...] There can be no reason for thinking or saying that the Catholicos of the East can be judged by superiors or by another patriarch. A creditor could force debtors to work for him, but not sell them. Babylon was established by Nimrod, who was a mighty hunter and ruler on the Earth. Recent research by British Assyriologist Stephanie Dalley has suggested that these were the famous Hanging Gardens, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. [17] Strabo (died c. AD 24) references Syria (Greek), Assyria (Latin) and Asōristān (Middle Persian). These include the ruins of Nineveh, Kalhu (Nimrud, Assur, Dur-Sharrukin and Hatra). A more likely account is that the city was named Ashur after the deity of that name sometime in the 3rd millennium BCE; the same god's name is the origin for 'Assyria'. However, other experts say that serpents occur frequently in Assyrian mythology, and note that there is no mention of a telescope in any of the many surviving Assyrian astronomical writings. Bishop Joseph of Diyarbakır converted to the Catholic faith in 1667 or 1668. On his death in 1677, two strong factions emerged, each of which elected a Patriarch, one pro-, the other anti-Rome. [98][99] The Assyrians lived in a province known as Asuristan, and the region was on the frontier of the Byzantine and Sassanian empires. In 1555, he was killed by the Turkish authorities after being denounced by the traditionalist patriarch, but the metropolitans he had ordained elected a successor for him, initiating the Shimun line of patriarchs, all of whom took the name Shimun (Simon). Amenhotep II sent the Assyrian king a tribute of gold to seal an alliance against the Hurri-Mitannian empire. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 10 Apr 2018. Esarhaddon (681-669 BCE) successfully conquered Egypt & established the empire’s borders as far north as the Zagros Mountains. Ancient Syro-Mesopotamia ca. Under Ashurbanipal (669–627 BC), an unusually well educated king for his time who could speak, read and write in Sumerian, Akkadian and Aramaic, Assyrian domination spanned from the Caucasus Mountains (modern Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan) in the north to Nubia, Egypt, Libya and Arabia in the south, and from the East Mediterranean, Cyprus and Antioch in the west to Persia, Cissia and the Caspian Sea in the east. [citation needed] The seat of the Catholicos of the Church of the East was Seleucia-Ctesiphon, not Assur. Regarding this, Kriwaczek writes: Belief in the transcendence rather than immanence of the divine had important consequences. This was especially detrimental to the military which languished under kings like Ashur Dan III and Ashur Nirari V. The empire was revitalized by Tiglath Pileser III (745-727 BCE) who reorganized the military and restructured the bureaucracy of the government. [72], In a subsequent campaign, the Assyrian forces penetrated into the mountains south of Lake Van and then turned westward to receive the submission of Malatia and Urartu. He is known to have greatly expanded Assyrian trading colonies in Anatolia, with twenty one being listed during his reign. One prominent example is the winged bull lamassu or shedu that guard the entrances to the king's court. [73] The control of the high road to the Mediterranean was secured by the possession of the Hittite town of Pitru[74] at the junction between the Euphrates and Sajur; thence he proceeded to conquer the Canaanite/Phoenician city-states of Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, Simyra, Berytus (Beirut), Aradus and finally Arvad where he embarked onto a ship to sail the Mediterranean, on which he killed a nahiru or "sea-horse" (which A. Leo Oppenheim translates as a narwhal) in the sea. Ashurbanipal ruled over the empire for 42 years and, in that time, campaigned successfully and ruled efficiently. The victorious Assyrians demolished the walls of Babylon, massacred many of the inhabitants, pillaged and plundered his way across the city to the Esagila temple, where he made off with the statue of Marduk. He moved the capital to Nineveh and built what was known as “the Palace without a Rival”. Chaldea (/ k æ l ˈ d iː ə /) was a country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia. The king depended on both the citizen class and priests in his capital, and the landed nobility who supplied the horses needed by Assyria's military. Its greatest expansion was in the 7th century. However, due to the collapse of the Russian Empire—due to the Russian Revolution—and the similar collapse of the Armenian Defense, the Assyrians were left without allies. This treaty, known as the Loyalty Treaty of Naqia-Zakutu, ensured the easy transition of power when Esarhaddon died preparing to campaign against the Nubians and rule passed to the last great Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal (668-627 BCE). The policies of the Baathists have also long been mirrored in Turkey, whose nationalist governments have refused to acknowledge the Assyrians as an ethnic group since the 1920s, and have attempted to Turkify the Assyrians by calling them "Semitic Turks" and forcing them to adopt Turkish names and language. Durant writes: In the field of art, Assyria equaled her preceptor Babylonia and in bas-relief surpassed her. After Iraq was granted independence by the British in 1933, the Assyrians suffered the Simele Massacre, where thousands of unarmed villagers (men, women and children) were slaughtered by joint Arab-Kurdish forces of the Iraqi Army. Sennacherib’s proud account of the palace gardens he created at Nineveh fits that of the Hanging Gardens in several significant details. 1200 B.C. Nevertheless, although predominantly Christian, a minority of Assyrians still held onto their ancient Mesopotamian religion until as late as the 10th or 11th century AD. Regardless of these hardships, the Assyrian people remained numerically dominant in the north of Mesopotamia as late as the 14th century AD, and the city of Assur functioned as their religious and cultural capital. Ancient Babylon. The Late Empire (also known as the Neo-Assyrian Empire) is the one most familiar to students of ancient history as it is the period of the largest expansion of the empire. These stone reliefs lined the walls in the royal palaces where foreigners were received by the king. Many urban Assyrians became successful businessmen, a number of Assyrians moved south to cities such as Baghdad, Basra and Nasiriyah to enhance their economic prospects, others were well represented in politics, the military, the arts and entertainment, Assyrian towns, villages, farmsteads and Assyrian quarters in major cities flourished undisturbed, and Assyrians came to excel and be over-represented in sports such as boxing, football, athletics, wrestling and swimming. Assyria, in general, had much harsher laws than most of the region. On its west is … Assyrian identity; personal, family and tribal names; and both the spoken and written evolution of Mesopotamian Aramaic (which still contains many Akkadian loan words and an Akkadian grammatical structure) have survived among the Assyrian people from ancient times to this day. [163], Under Yazdegerd I (399–421) the situation of the Christian minority improved considerably. (2018, April 10). Nor, indeed, were the Assyrians notably crueler than the Romans, who made a point of lining their roads with thousands of victims of crucifixion dying in agony" (209). "When Syrians, Algerians and Iraqis patrolled Hadrian's Wall", "Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today", "Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Bonn / De Scriptoribus Syris... [661]", "Gesenius Hebrew Chaldee Lexicon Old Testament Scriptures.Tregelles.1857. Assyria maintained a large and thriving rural population, combined with a number of well fortified cities, Major Assyrian cities during this period included; Nineveh, Assur, Kalhu (Calah, Nimrud), Arbela (Erbil), Arrapha (Karka, Kirkuk), Dur-Sharrukin, Imgur-Enlil, Carchemish, Harran, Tushhan, Til-Barsip, Ekallatum, Kanesh, Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta, Urhai (Edessa), Guzana, Kahat, Amid (Diyarbakir), Mérida (Mardin, Tabitu, Nuhadra (Dohuk), Ivah, Sepharvaim, Rachae, Purushanda, Sabata, Birtha (Tikrit), Tell Shemshara, Dur-Katlimmu and Shekhna. The period from the 1940s through to 1963 was a period of respite for the Assyrians in northern Iraq and north east Syria. This should not be understood, however, as a cruel treatment of captives. The entire history of the Ancient Assyrian Empire explained in 11 Minutes. The people known as the Hurrians and the Hatti held dominance in the region of Anatolia and Ashur, to the north in Mesopotamia, remained in the shadow of these more powerful civilizations. Eastern Christianity, Cambridge University Press, p. 512, David Gaunt, "The Assyrian Genocide of 1915", Assyrian Genocide Research Center, 2009, Genocide Scholars Association Officially Recognizes Assyrian Greek Genocides. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. However, this led to conflict with the powerful Elamites of the southwest of ancient Iran, who were themselves preying upon Babylonia. According to Georges Roux he would have lived in the mid 25th century BC, i.e. [92] Nineveh was never rebuilt however, and 200 years after it was sacked Xenophon reported only small numbers of Assyrians living amongst its ruins. Sargon II quickly took Samaria, effectively ending the northern Kingdom of Israel and carrying 27,000 people away into captivity into the Israelite diaspora. HISTORY OF ASSYRIA: RISE AND FALL OF ANCIENT WORLD POWER 2016. He created the world's first professional army, introduced Imperial Aramaic as the lingua franca of Assyria and its vast empire, and reorganised the empire drastically. Assyrian kings during this period appear to have adopted a policy of maintaining and defending a compact, secure nation and satellite colonies immediately surrounding it, and interspersed this with sporadic punitive raids and invasions of neighbouring territories when the need arose, including campaigning as far as the Mediterranean and sacking Babylonia. The Neo-Assyrian Empire is usually considered to have begun with the ascension of Adad-nirari II, in 911 BC, lasting until the fall of Nineveh at the hands of the Medes/Persians and Babylonians, Chaldeans in 609 BC.[83]. Ancient Assyrian Empire Synthesis of their History. Ancient Assyria synonyms, Ancient Assyria pronunciation, Ancient Assyria translation, English dictionary definition of Ancient Assyria. (214-215). This policy included refusing to acknowledge the Assyrians as an ethnic group, banning the publication of written material in Eastern Aramaic, and banning its teaching in schools, together with an attempt to Arabize the ancient pre-Arab heritage of Mesopotamian civilisation. The tradition of the Church of the East is that Thomas the Apostle and his disciples Addai (Thaddeus of Edessa) and Mari brought Christianity to Mesopotamia, thus attributing to the first century the founding of the episcopal see of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, which became that Church's primatial see in 410. Assyria is located at 42 degrees North latitude and 85 degrees West longitude. The Empire of Assyria (The Largest Boundaries) Under Ashurbanipal (669-627 BC) the boundaries of the Assyrian Empire reached as far as the Caucasus Mountains in the north to Egypt, Arabia, and down to Nubia in the south, and from Cyprus and Antioch in the west to Persia in the east. [37] The Sumerians were eventually absorbed into the Akkadian (Assyro-Babylonian) population.[29][30]. Following his reign, however, his successors preferred to rest on the accomplishments of others and the empire entered another period of stagnation. [182][183] In addition, West Syrian opponents of the Council of Chalcedon sought refuge in Persia from the pro-Chalcedonian policy of Emperors Justin I and Justinian I and actively propagated their own theology. [109], Around 100 years after the massacres by Timur, a religious schism known as the Schism of 1552 occurred among the Christians of northern Mesopotamia. 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